A Woman With A Great Mind Asks You To Take A Moment To Appreciate Her Body

Celebrate your body, just by watching this video. Then celebrate with friends, by sharing it.

Lucille Clifton was a writer, an educator, and the Poet Laureate of Maryland. She passed away in 2010.

Read more: http://upworthy.com/a-woman-with-a-great-mind-asks-you-to-take-a-moment-to-appreciate-her-body-5

A Dangerous Disease Is On The Rise, And These Wildly Intelligent Teens Are Here To Explain Why

Did you know that Type 2 diabetes (Wait! Don’t click away yet!) is on the rise in young people? It’s an issue that’s ridiculously important but also incredibly complicated. What’s causing it? How much blame can we place on the youth themselves? What do race and class issues have to do with it? Well, let me tell you: This performance nails every part of it. Every. Part.

Well I think that about covers it. Don’t you? If you think some folks could learn a lot from this, consider sharing it using the buttons below.

Read more: http://upworthy.com/a-dangerous-disease-is-on-the-rise-and-these-wildly-intelligent-teens-are-here-to-explain-why

10 Creepy And Deranged Experiments Done On Humans

Experiments involving the use of people will always remain a controversial topic. On one hand, they allow us to obtain more information about the human body that we can put to good use in the future. On the other hand, we have a whole slew of ethical issues to consider. The best that we can do as civilized human beings is to balance the two. Ideally, we should conduct experiments while bringing the least possible harm to the individual. This list shows the exact opposite of that concept. We can only imagine the pain these people went through as they were treated like nothing more than guinea pigs by those who liked to play God.

10 Surgery To Treat Insanity

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Dr. Henry Cotton believed that localized infections were the root causes of insanity. After he became the head of an insane asylum in Trenton in 1907, he began implementing a procedure he dubbed “surgical bacteriology.” During that time, Cotton and his team performed thousands of surgical operations on patients, often without their consent. First, they extracted teeth and tonsils; if that wasn’t enough, they would go deeper and remove the internal organs which they believed were causing the problems. He believed in his methods so much that he even performed them on himself and his family. He extracted teeth from himself, his wife, and his two sons (one of whom also had part of his colon removed).

Cotton claimed that his treatments had a high rate of curing patients, and that claim soon became a lightning rod for critics who found his work appalling. In one instance, he justified the deaths of 49 patients from the colectomies and stated that they were already suffering from “end-stage psychosis” prior to the operations. An independent investigation later revealed that Cotton greatly exaggerated the results. After his death in 1933, the surgeries at the asylum ceased and Cotton’s viewpoints faded into obscurity. To his credit, critics ruled that he really was sincere in his efforts to cure his patients, albeit in an insane, deluded way.

9 Vaginal Surgery Without Anesthesia

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J. Marion Sims, revered by many as a pioneer in the field of American gynecology, conducted an extensive surgical study on several female African-American slaves during the 1840s. The study, which spanned three years, focused on a surgical cure for vesicovaginal fistula, a condition that abnormally connects the bladder to the vagina. But here’s the kicker—he performed the surgeries without anesthesia. One subject, a woman named Anarcha, endured a whopping 30 operations before Sims finally got it right.

This wasn’t the only horrifying study that Sims performed. Among other insanities that we’ve discussed before, he also tried to cure the infants of slaves suffering from trismus (a condition similar to lockjaw in tetanus) using a shoemaker’s awl to pry their cranial bones into alignment.

8 Accidental Bubonic Plague

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Richard Strong, a doctor and head of the Biological Laboratory of the Philippines Bureau of Science, performed several inoculations on inmates at a Manila prison in an attempt to find the perfect cholera vaccine. In one such experiment in 1906, he mistakenly gave the bubonic plague to the inmates instead of the cholera vaccine, which resulted in the deaths of 13 subjects. A government investigation into the incident later corroborated the findings and stated that “a plague serum was probably substituted for a bottle of cholera serum.”

Depressed by the debacle, Strong laid low for awhile, only to resurface six years later for another series of inoculations on the inmates—this time with the disease Beriberi. Some of the participants died, while those who survived were compensated with nothing more than a few packs of cigarettes. Strong’s notorious experiments were such a catastrophe that they were later cited by Nazi defendants at the Nuremberg trials to justify their own horrific research.

7 Slaves Doused With Boiling Water

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In what could more accurately be described as torture than treatment, Dr. Walter Jones recommended boiling water as a cure for typhoid pneumonia during the 1840s. He tested his treatment on numerous slaves afflicted with the disease over the course of several months. Jones described in great detail how one patient, a sickly 25-year-old man, was stripped naked and made to lie down on the ground on his stomach. At this point, Jones poured five gallons of boiling water over the patient’s back.

However, that wasn’t the end of the poor man’s suffering—White stated that the treatment should be repeated every four hours, which he rationalized would be sufficient for “re-establishing the capillary circulation.” Jones later claimed that his treatment cured many patients, an assertion that was never independently verified. No surprise there.

6 Electric Current Applied Directly To The Brain

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While the idea of shocking someone sounds painful by itself, one man—a Cincinnati physician named Dr. Roberts Bartholow—took it to the next level when he sent an electric current straight into the brain of one of his patients. In 1847, Bartholow was treating a patient named Mary Rafferty who was suffering from an ulcer in the skull. The ulcer had eaten its way so far through the bone that her brain had became visible.

With her permission, Bartholow inserted electrodes directly into her brain and applied varying currents to observe her reactions. He repeated his experiment eight times over a four-day period. Initially, Rafferty seemed fine; however, she became greatly agitated during the later stages of the tests and soon went into a coma. Shortly afterward, she died.

The resulting backlash was so great that Bartholow had to leave his job and continue his work elsewhere. He later settled in Philadelphia and attained a very high teaching position at Jefferson Medical College, proving that even mad scientists can catch the occasional break.

5 Testicle Transplants

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Leo Stanley, the chief physician at San Quentin prison from 1913 to 1951, had a crazy theory: He believed that males who committed crimes had low levels of testosterone and, according to him, raising testosterone levels in inmates would reduce criminal behavior.

To test this notion, Stanley conducted a series of bizarre operations in which he surgically transplanted the testicles of newly executed criminals into still-living prisoners. Due to a lack of available human testicles (on average, only three executions took place inside the prison annually), Quentin soon turned to using various animal testicles that he would process into a liquid and inject into the prisoners’ skin.

By 1922, Stanley claimed that he had performed the operations on more than 600 inmates. He also claimed that his operations were successful; in one particular case he described how a senile Caucasian inmate became sprightly and energetic after being given the testicles of an executed African-American man.

4 Shock Therapy And LSD For Kids

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Lauretta Bender is perhaps best known for devising the Bender-Gestalt test—a psychological test that assesses a child’s motor and cognitive abilities. However, Bender also engaged in several slightly more controversial studies. As psychiatrist of the Bellevue Hospital during the 1940s, Bender administered daily shocks to 98 pediatric patients in an effort to cure them of a condition she coined “childhood schizophrenia.”

She reported that the shocks were hugely successful, and that only a small number of the children went into relapse. As if the shock treatment wasn’t enough, Bender also gave the children adult-sized doses of mind-bending drugs such as LSD and psilocybin (the chemical in hallucinogenic mushrooms), often for weeks at a time. And while it was never officially proven, there have been allegations that she got her funds from the notorious CIA program MK-ULTRA.

3 The Guatemala Syphilis Experiment

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In 2010, a highly unethical syphilis experiment came to light when a professor who was studying the infamous Tuskegee Study discovered that the same health organization also performed a similar experiment in Guatemala. This revelation spurred the White House to form an investigation committee, which later found that government-sponsored researchers intentionally infected 1,300 Guatemalans with syphilis in 1946.

The study, which lasted two years, aimed to find out if penicillin could be an effective treatment once a patient was already infected. To do that, the researchers paid prostitutes to spread the disease to other people—mostly soldiers, inmates, and psychiatric patients—who did not know they were being infected with syphilis. A total of 83 people died from the experiment. These ghastly findings prompted President Obama to personally apologize to the Guatemalan president and people.

2 Skin-Hardening Experiments

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Dermatologist Albert Kligman ran a very comprehensive experimental program on inmates of Holmesburg Prison during the 1960s. In one such experiment, the US Army sponsored a study that focused on finding ways to harden the skin. Theoretically, the hardened skin could protect the soldiers from chemical irritants while in combat zones. Kligman applied various chemical-filled creams and agents to the inmates, but the only noticeable outcome was permanent scarring and a good deal of pain.

Pharmaceutical companies also paid Kligman to use his prisoners as guinea pigs to test their products. While the subjects were paid to participate, they were not fully informed of the experiments’ objectives and the potentially adverse effects that could result from them. Many of the chemical concoctions ended up causing the skin to blister and burn. Needless to say, Kligman displayed ruthless, mechanical efficiency in dealing with the inmates during his tenure at the prison. In fact, after he arrived at the prison for the first time, he remarked that “all I saw before me were acres of skin.”

Eventually, public uproar and a subsequent investigation forced Kligman to shut down his operations and destroy all the information from the experiments. Sadly, the former test subjects were never compensated, while Kligman later became rich by inventing Retin-A, the “drug of choice” against acne. Sometimes life just doesn’t play fair.

1 Experimental Spinal Taps On Children

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While lumbar punctures—sometimes referred to as spinal taps—are often a necessary procedure, especially for neurological and spinal disorders, we can all agree that sticking a giant needle into someone’s spine is a recipe for excruciating pain. Yet, in 1896, a pediatrician named Arthur Wentworth decided to test the obvious. During an experimental spinal tap on a young girl, Wentworth noted how the patient cringed in pain during the procedure. Wentworth suspected that the operation was painful (it was believed to be painless at the time) but was not totally convinced. So he performed it again—on 29 infants and toddlers.

He eventually reached the conclusion that although temporarily painful, the procedure was very useful in helping diagnose illnesses. Wentworth’s findings received mixed reviews from his colleagues—some praised them while one critic denounced them as nothing more than “human vivisection.” Growing public indignation over the experiments later forced Wentworth to leave his teaching job at Harvard Medical School.

Read more: http://listverse.com/2013/11/13/10-creepy-and-deranged-experiments-done-on-humans/

Hugh Jackman Gives Us A Much-Needed History Lesson And A Wake-Up Call

In just over a minute, Hugh Jackman will make you laugh — and then think — about some of the assumptions we make with regard to disease.

Even though the concert he mentions is long past, the fight to end this threat to kids wages on.

Read more: http://upworthy.com/what-one-celebrity-wants-you-to-know-about-ice-cream-might-save-a-childs-life-one-day

The Next Time A Guy Ogles Me, I'm Going To Stop Him And Show Him This Video

This goes out to the creepy dude on my morning walk to work. I see you. I KNOW you see me. These two women sound off to the comments that I tune out with headphones. They’re braver than I am.

Read more: http://upworthy.com/the-next-time-a-guy-oogles-me-im-going-to-stop-him-and-show-him-this-video-3

A School In Switzerland Tried An Experiment. The Results Are Too Adorable.

Cutest. Classroom innovation. Ever.

I wish my second-grade class was like this.

I knew I’d seen that dog somewhere before…

And then it hit me: That dog is doge.

Read more: http://upworthy.com/a-school-in-switzerland-tried-an-experiment-the-results-are-too-adorable

Top 10 Bizarre Fetishes

The late, great George Carlin once said, “A rat will do a lot of disgusting things, but it will not [censored] a dead rat.” Here are ten sexual practices strangely peculiar to humans. For the sake of interest it would be great if anyone experienced in one of these fetishes could tell us a little about their experiences in the comments. I should also mention that there are no disturbing images on this list but there is disturbing content.

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Sexual enjoyment derived from someone’s foot. Shoe fetishism is also grouped under this category. The enthusiasts, almost always men, kiss, lick, or suck another person’s feet, or use the feet for masturbation. This is, by far, the most common fetish known, except perhaps for spanking. Ph.Ds. have been awarded for dissertations on this fetish, and the psychology involved seems to center on the premise that the toes are shorter, stubbier, more rounded than fingers, and thus “cuter.”

For men, the foot of another person represents power and authority, since to fondle it in any way usually requires the fetishist to get on his hands and knees, or lie down. This closely relates to “crushing,” the fetish of watching a foot stomp breakable objects like walnuts.

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Sexual arousal derived from stealing. The fetishist typically begins this lifestyle by stealing from his or her significant other, then amplifying the thrill by stealing from total strangers. The objects stolen are usually secondary in importance, small objects that can be quickly and easily hidden and walked away with.

The fetishist then finds a secluded spot and pleasures himself, sometimes using the stolen object. This fetish includes a practice of which most serial killers are guilty: removing body parts from their victims to keep as trophies. Ed Gein kept a box of noses under his bed.

Badboy

From the Greek “hubris,” or recklessness. This fetish actually has more female than male indulgers. It involves the sexual arousal of one person at the illegal exploits of another, almost always the crime of armed robbery or murder. The practitioners of this fetish are rarely as well known as their objects of desire. John Dillinger, a particularly handsome criminal, earned a vast female following, especially after he made it known that he only robbed from the government, never ordinary citizens. He became Robin Hood.

Richard Ramirez, who raped and murdered at least 14 people, conducted correspondence from prison with Doreen Lioy, possibly the most famous hybristophile in history. They eventually married in prison, and she has sworn that if he is executed, she will commit suicide.

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Sexual arousal derived from mirrors. The fetishist enjoys masturbating in front of a mirror, or having total orgies in front of mirrors. Such people have been known to install mirrors in every room of their houses in order to have sex everywhere they can. Men and women have been ejected from carnivals when found masturbating or having sex in the house of mirrors.

This has much in common with narcissism, the obsession with, or worship of, oneself. Mirrors are quite popular in pornographic films, allowing for creative camera angles, and the ability to fill up an entire room with flesh tones.

Cloth Diaper

This has a lot in common with paraphilic infantilism, or roleplaying as an adult baby. It has nothing to do with pedophilia, but some fetishists of one have been known to engage in the other. An enthusiast of this paraphilia derives sexual arousal, frequently to the point of automatic orgasm, from dressing in only a diaper, or watching someone else do so.

Masturbation while wearing the diaper is typical. This fetish has a lot in common with the principle of a striptease, but is a roleplaying lifestyle often featuring bottle feeding and deliberately soiling oneself. Enthusiasts may require a mother or father figure, sometimes their actual parent, to care for them in every way. This is quite a rare subcategory of the fetish, given that very few people will consent to tending for an adult.

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It means precisely what it sounds like. The fetishist is sexually aroused by being struck in the groin, or by watching others being struck in the groin. This is a subcategory of masochism, and by definition requires a sadist to perform the striking. Men make up about 90% of its adherents, but some women also indulge in it, and this practice is referred to as c__tbusting.

Men striking men is considered a homosexual practice, as opposed to women striking men. It is extremely dangerous, given the possibility of rupturing one or both testicles, and thus, most men allow only light to moderate strikes, until they have reached their pain threshold, after which they masturbate. Some men request full-force striking and some willfully take this fetish to the ultimate extreme of castration. All physical masochism is based on the principle of the brain releasing endorphins to enable the body to cope with the pain.

Endorphins are more powerful than morphine, and the brain releases very few in most instances. They numb the irritated nerves and give the person’s entire body a natural high. No other part of the body is as sensitive to blunt impact as the testicles, except perhaps the eye. Kicking is the most common method of striking, but kneeing, punching, and squeezing are also common.

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This fetish involves a person, almost always a man, deliberately hanging himself while masturbating. The constriction of the neck arteries and trachea forces a rush of blood into the brain, where it is trapped, heightening the sensation of the orgasm. If a person performs this fetish alone, his feet must be able to reach a weight-bearing object in order to release himself.

This is extremely dangerous, since a person may not be able to think clearly during an orgasm, and certainly cannot think as clearly while choking. If pressure on the neck is not released in a timely manner, the fetishist may black out, and thus hang himself. This is precisely what happened to film actor David Carradine.

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Also called bestiality, it is enjoyment of sexual intercourse with non-human animals. By far the most common animals involved are the horse and the dog. The reason for the former is the gargantuan genitalia; for the latter the availability and trainability. Chickens (for which the fetish is fatal), goats, sheep, and especially any farmyard animal are the most typically used. Most animals involved simply do not care. Dogs and some horses can be trained to enjoy the intercourse.

Both men and women engage in this fetish, and have done so since at least the time of Leviticus, in which there is more than one verse devoted to stopping it. Sex with horses is extraordinarily dangerous, as the horse can and does rip through the colon or penetrate into the uterus, causing an agonizing death. This is what happened in the infamous viral video of Kenneth Pinyan, aka “Mr. Hands.”

Necrophilia

Enjoyment of sexual intercourse with dead bodies. This deviance has nothing to do with murder, but the two are frankly inseparable, given their storied history together. Humans rarely come across dead human bodies, at least in “civilized countries.” Thus, the most common occurrence of necrophilia is courtesy of a murderer, usually a serial killer or sexual sadist, who immediately, and sometimes for protracted periods after the murder, satisfies his desire to “own” the victim in every way possible. Not only does he enjoy owning the victim’s life, but he then has what Ted Bundy called “a bag of flesh” to do with as he pleases.

Bundy is most notorious for having indulged this paraphilia on the bodies of many of his victims, often for so long that he only stopped when putrefaction set in. But the word incorporates sexual intercourse with non-human dead bodies, as well, and there have been reports, over the ages, of people finding dead animal carcasses, especially large ones, like deer or bears, and copulating with them. Some people have been known to shoot animals and then engage in intercourse with them. This qualifies for #3, as well.

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That is to say, sexual satisfaction from feces. There are very few plausible explanations for the sexuality involved, but its fetishists do exist, albeit rarely. Most of them go no further than enjoying the sight of another person defecating, then closely studying the feces. An even rare subcategory of this fetish is called coprophagia, which is sexual gratification from eating feces. Almost all coprophages begin the fetish by orally stimulating a partner’s anus. It is extremey dangerous, as it carries a high risk of infection or disease.

One of the most common examples of this paraphilia relates to bestiality: during sexual intercourse with the animal, the person also copulates with the animal’s feces. Horse excrement is mostly grass, and so fibrous that the grass can still be easily discerned, and some coprophiles become coprophages by consuming horse feces. The one and only Albert Fish, and may he fry in his own cooking oil, was an adherent to this fetish, as well as every other entry on this list.

Read more: http://listverse.com/2012/11/07/top-10-bizarre-fetishes-2/

How The CIA Is Kind Of Like A Psychic

From the Central Intelligence Agency’s World Factbook, here’s a chart that measures the life expectancy in every country on the planet. Spoiler alert: The U.S. doesn’t do so well. In fact, citizens of Greece, Spain, Japan, Italy, Canada, and 45 other countries live longer than Americans. It’s kind of like the World Cup, but way more depressing.

Read more: http://upworthy.com/how-the-cia-is-kind-of-like-a-psychic

If You Think Talking About Sex Can Feel Taboo, See What These Pregnant Ladies Go Through

In the African nation of Malawi, expectant mothers are afraid that if they speak up about their pregnancies, someone might put a spell on their unborn children. So how do they learn about what’s going on with their bodies?

Read more: http://upworthy.com/if-you-think-talking-about-sex-can-feel-taboo-see-what-these-pregnant-ladies-go-through-9